An Interesting Early Morning QSO with SN1918WAR, a History Related Special Event Station in Poland

Brunswick – Yesterday morning after breakfast I fired up the mobile HF station to try for some Skywarn Recognition Day contacts. I saw AB4UG tweet that WX4CHS at NWS Charleston, SC was active on 40 Meters, but propagation was too long for me to hear them. I did, however, manage to work two other NWS stations on 40 Meters: WX2PHI, NWS Mount Holly, NJ, and WX8GRR, NWS Grand Rapids, MI. In between those two, though I made one of the most interesting QSOs I’ve had in quite a while.

Since I wasn’t hearing a lot on 40 Meters (it was only just after 0700 local), I tuned over to 20 Meters to see if I could find anything there and was surprised to hear some DX stations. As I tuned around I found something that really caught my attention: a station using the callsign SN1918WAR. It checked two boxes that interest me: a station with a non-standard callsign and since it included 1918, a history-related special event. I already assumed that it was World War I related due to the use of 1918, but a station ID further identified it as having to do with Poland regaining its independence after World War I. I tried for quite a while to make contact with him, all the while hearing 2 area and 1 area US callsigns make it through. I persevered and finally made contact; I only got a 31 signal report (I gave him a 56 back), but neither one of us had any problems understanding the other (compared to WX8GRR, who really had to work to pull my signal out – many thanks by the way!).

The significance of SN1918WAR has to with the radio transmissions made announcing Poland’s independence on 18/19 November 1918. Using captured German military radio equipment in Warsaw and using the callsign WAR, Polish operators transmitted a message to Great Britain, France, the United States, Italy, Japan, Germany and other countries proclaiming their independence. SN1918WAR’s QRZ page describes the WAR station as:

“The WAR radio station was established by German troops in 1915 in the gunner plot in a road hidden between the third and fourth bastions of the Warsaw Citadel. The Telefunken transmitter, with a multiple spark gap Wiena cooled by a fan, generated a power of 4 kW. The L-shaped antenna of the Marconi system was suspended between two 70-meter masts. The receiver was based on a  Telefunken detector and an “E5″ receiver. The station operated on a wavelength of 900 m and the receiver between 600-9000 m.”

They will be operating through the end of 2018 on multiple bands and modes, and you can QSL via email for a PDF certificate. As you’re tuning through the HF bands, keep an ear out for them, this one is a nice one to put in your log!

History Related Amateur Radio Special Event Stations for October 2018

Four history-related Amateur Radio special event stations during October stand out to me. Two o the special event stations honor important figures from US History: Dwight D. Eisenhower and Roger Williams. A third commemorates the birth of one of our armed forces: the US Navy. The fourth commemorates a key battle of the American Revolution and the subsequent surrender of British Forces at Yorktown, VA.

The Grayson County Amateur Radio Club in Sherman, TX will be operating special event station W5I from 8 October to 16 October in commemoration of Dwight D. Eisenhower’s birthday on 14 October 1890 in Denison, TX. Eisenhower was a pivotal figure in American History during World War II and the early part of the Cold War. After the Pearl Harbor Attack, Eisenhower was assigned as a Brigadier General in the US Army to the General Staff in Washington DC where he was responsible for developing war plans against both Japan and Germany. Just six months later, despite having never held an active command higher than Battalion Commander, he was appointed Commanding General, European Theater of Operations and promoted to Lieutenant General. In the run-up to the North African invasion, he was named Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force, North African Theater of Operations. In late 1943, Eisenhower was appointed Supreme Allied Commander in Europe and Supreme Allied Commander Allied Expeditionary Force. He would hold both commands until the end of World War II in Europe. Despite not having the experience of command above the battalion commander, Eisenhower proved to be an excellent appointment by President Roosevelt. The job of Supreme Allied Commander was just as much a political job as it was a military job and he did a terrific job juggling the different aims, wants, and politics of the various Allied powers as well as dealing with extraordinary personalities like DeGaulle, Montgomery, and Patton. After World War II, Eisenhower, by now a five star General of the Army served as Military Governor of the American Occupation Zone in Europe, as Chief of Staff of the Army, and finally as NATO Supreme Commander before retiring in 1952. In 1952, Eisenhower was pressed to run for President by the Republican Party and was elected. As President, Eisenhower was noted in the foreign policy arena for working to bring the Korean War to an end, Cold War policy including nuclear policy and the “domino theory,” and his handling of the Sputnik crisis and U-2 incident and in the domestic policy arena for continuing New Deal programs such as Social Security, creating the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (later split into the Department of Health and Human Services and the Department of Education), authorizing the Interstate Highway System, the Civil Rights Act of 1957, and the Little Rock Crisis. On the political spectrum, Eisenhower considered himself a moderate, progressive Republican. It can easily be argued that his experience as Supreme Commander during and after World War II gave him the experience in handling disparate groups and personalities that enabled him to be a great President; he was ranked the 5th greatest President in the 2017 C-Span Presidential Historians Survey. In his farewell address, he offered us advice which is still pertinent today:

“As we peer into society’s future, we – you and I, and our government – must avoid the impulse to live only for today, plundering for our own ease and convenience the precious resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage. We want democracy to survive for all generations to come, not to become the insolvent phantom of tomorrow.”

“In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together.”

W5I will be operating on or near 14.250 USB, 7.200, LSB, 14.040, and 7.040. QSL via Grayson County ARC, PO Box 642, Sherman, TX 75091.

Providence Emergency Management Agency RACES, KK1PMA, in Providence, RI will be honoring Roger Williams with a special event station on 13 October. Williams is a fascinating figure in US History. A Puritan minister, Williams came to the Massachusetts Bay Colony from England in 1630. Before long, his beliefs in religious freedom and separation of Church and State and his dealings with Native Americans brought him into conflict with the Colony’s leadership. First, he believed that individuals should be able to follow their own path when it comes to religion and that they should not be coerced into following a particular church; in his mind, a state religion was a religion forced upon the people.  Second, he believed that it was not the place of civil authorities to enforce religious laws such as those found in the first five of the Ten Commandments: idolatry (Thou shalt have no other God before me/Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image), blasphemy (Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain), and the breaking of the Sabbath (Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy). These arguments were the antithesis of most of his contemporaries but they would influence our Founding Fathers and the direction our government would take. Also contrary to most of his contemporaries in the Colony was how he dealt with Native Americans; Williams believed in fair dealings with Native Americans. He came to question colonial charters that didn’t reimburse Native Americans for land taken to form those colonies. It was because of those beliefs that Roger Williams was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony. After his banishment, he eventually founded Providence Plantation, which eventually became the colony of and then the state of Rhode Island It’s also worth mentioning that Williams was opposed to slavery and attempted to prevent its legalization in Rhode Island. Unfortunately, it was an admirable but unsuccessful attempt.  KK1PMA will be operating on or around 53.02 USB, 14.275 USB,  and 7.275 LSB. QSL for a certificate via Barry Noel, P.O. Box 28091, Providence, RI 02908.

Also on 13 October, NI6IW, the USS Midway (CV-41) museum ship will be commemorating the establishment of the US Navy on 13 October 1775. The United States Navy celebrates its birthday on 13 October because the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two ships, marking the beginning of the Continental Navy. The Continental Navy was shortlived; it was disbanded at the end of the American Revolution because the new government lacked the funds to maintain a standing navy. Between 1790 and 1797, the US Revenue Cutter Service (a forerunner of the US Coast Guard) provided the only armed maritime service that the United States had. In 1794, however, Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 authorizing a permanent standing Navy; the US Navy was established and by 1797, the first three of the US Navy’s first six frigates were commissioned and in service. For more information on and a good read about the beginnings of the United States Navy, I highly recommend Ian W. Toll’s Six Frigates: The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy. NI6IW will be operating on or around 14.320 USB, 7.250 LSB, and 14.070 as well as D-STAR on REF001C. QSL via USS Midway (CV-41) COMEDTRA, 901 N Harbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92101.

On 20 October, K4RC, the Williamsburg Area Amateur Radio Club in Yorktown, VA will commemorate the surrender of British forces after the Battle of Yorktown. The Battle of Yorktown lasted from 28 September to 19 October 1781. Yorktown was more of siege than a battle, American and French forces surrounded the British Army on land and at sea. The Continental Army under George Washington and the French Army under the Comte de Rochambeau surrounded the British Army under Charles Cornwallis. At sea, the French Navy under the Comte de Grasse blockaded the British and prevented reinforcement attempts. The siege began on 28 September and throughout the first half of October, the Americans and French worked closer to the British positions. On 14 October, assaults of the British defenses began and on 17 October the British offered to surrender. Negotiations began and on 19 October, the surrender was official. The British surrender at Yorktown didn’t end the American Revolution, it would continue until 1783, but it did give American morale a much-needed boost. It also caused a collapse of public support for the war in Great Britain and moved the British government to negotiations to end the Revolution. To read more about the American Revolution, I would recommend Robert Middlekauff’s The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789 and for reading about the last years of the American Revolution following Yorktown, I would recommend American Crisis: George Washington and the Dangerous Two Years After Yorktown, 1781-1783 by William M. Fowler Jr. K4RC will be operating on or around 14.265 USB and 7.265 LSB. QSL via K4RC, P.O. Box 1470, Williamsburg, VA 23187.

History Related Amateur Radio Special Event Stations for September 2018

The month of September has a number of History related amateur radio special event stations, but four stood out to me. The first is N0HWJ, which is commemorating the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The second is a set of special event stations, K3B, N3B, and W3B, which commemorate the Battle of Brandywine during the American Revolution. The third, K7T, commemorates the final surrender of Geronimo. The last, W0CXX, commemorates the 85th anniversary of the Collins Radio Company, undoubtedly one of the United States’ most important radio equipment companies.

The N0HWJ Lewis and Clark 1804 Expedition special event station will be ending its multi-month run on 15 September. Beginning at Camp Dubois near Wood River IL in May 1804, the Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery was commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Lead by Captain Merriwether Lewis and 2nd Lieutenant William Clark, the expedition was tasked with exploring the newly acquired territory and the Pacific Northwest as well as mapping both territories and staking claim to the Pacific Northwest before European countries could. Additionally, they were to do scientific studies of the plant and animal life and establish relations with the native peoples of the territories. The expedition lasted over two years, ending in September 1806 and traveled over 8,000 miles Despite difficult terrain and conditions and contact with both friendly and unfriendly tribes, there was little violence and they lost only one man. Even though it didn’t find the fabled Northwest Passage, they weren’t the first ones to explore the area, and they set the stage for the treatment of Native Americans in the future, the expedition was a success. They greatly contributed to the United States’ knowledge of its new territory and established a claim to the Pacific Northwest. Look for N0HWJ on or around 14.275,  14.250, 3.982, and 3.975. QSL via Don Lallier, N0HWJ, PO Box 303, Orchard, NE 68764.

Special Event Stations K3B, N3B, and W3B, operated by the Christiana Amateur Radio Emergency Service in Chadds Ford, PA will be commemorating the Battle of Brandywine, fought during the American Revolution, from 6 to 16 September. It was both the longest single-day battle (11 hours) of the American Revolution and was fought by the largest number of troops in any battle of the American Revolution (14,000 plus Americans versus 15,000  plus British)Fought around Chadds Ford and Brandywine Creek in Pennsylvania, the Battle of Brandywine was a significant defeat for the American forces led by George Washington. Poor scouting on the American’s part resulted in a lack of knowledge of where the British were and what they were doing, so the British forces under General William Howe were able to flank the Americans. A combination of delaying and rear guard actions and a British lack of cavalry allowed the Americans to escape and fight another day, but the loss at Brandywine led to the fall of Philadelphia, the home of the Continental Congress. K3B, N3B, and W3B will be operating on or near 21.280 14.280 7.180 3.860. QSL via Battle of Brandywine Special Event, P.O. Box 1324, 1620 Baltimore Pike, Chadds Ford, PA 19317

On 15 September, The Oro Valley Amateur Radio Club in Tucson, AZ will commemorate the 132nd Anniversary of Geronimo’s surrender at Skeleton Canyon with special event station K7T. Many assume Geronimo was a Chief of the Apache tribe, but he wasn’t – he as a leader and medicine man, but not a Chief. He was a skilled leader in raids and warfare and frequently led large numbers of Apaches during the fights with both the United States and Mexico. He and the Apaches following him surrendered and moved on to reservations, breaking out on three occasions due to disease, lack of rations, and the desire to return to their traditional lives: 1878, 1881, and 1885. K7T  commemorates the capture of Geronimo after the 1885 breakout. After the 1885 breakout, Geronimo and his followers were pursued by B Troop, 4th Cavalry under Captain Henry Lawton and 1st Lieutenant Charles Gatewood; the Troopers eventually wore down Geronimo’s group in Mexico and returned them to the United States on 4 September 1886, where they surrendered to General George Crook for the final time at Skeleton Canyon near Douglas, AZ. K7T will be operating SSB on 7.200 and 14.250, CW on 7.040 and 14.040, PSK on 7.070 and 14.070, and FT-8 on 7.074 and 14.074. QSL via email to qsl@tucsonhamradio.org.

The Rockwell Collins Amateur Radio Club, W0CXX, will be operating a special event station on 22/23 September in commemoration of the 85th Anniversary of the Collins Radio Company. Founded in 1933 by Arthur Collins, Initially, Collins manufactured Shortwave and AM equipment, but after providing communications equipment for the Byrd South Pole expedition, the company quickly became the preferred radio manufacturer of the US Military before and during World War II. After World War II, Collins expanded its horizons, moving into satellite and space communications and provided for programs such as Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. Collins also played a key role in amateur radio, perhaps most notably the S-Line receivers, transmitters, and accessories. Considered some of the best equipment available, Collins and then Rockwell Collins continued to manufacture the S-Line from 1958-1978. Bought by Rockwell in 1973, Rockwell Collins continues to manufacture communications equipment, primarily for commercial, government, and defense users. While they still produce mechanical filters that are available to the public, they no longer produce radios for amateur radio or general public use. Look for W0CXX on or around 14.245, 14.045, 7.195, and 7.045. QSL via W0CXX, 1157 Highway 965 NW, Cedar Rapids, IA 52404. 

History Related Amateur Radio Special Events Stations for August 2018

Each month, there are always some History related Amateur Radio Special Event Stations; I picked three to write about for August 2018. To be more accurate, two of them are organizations which are being commemorated by multiple stations: the US Coast Guard’s (USCG) Anniversary and the Citizens Conservation Corps (CCC). Many are familiar with the USCG and its lifesaving role on the coasts and waterways of the nation (among other roles), but I imagine more than a few aren’t familiar with the CCC; it was a program that helped put people to work during the Great Depression and is just as deserving of recognition as one of our military services is. The third event that is being commemorated by a special event station this month is the flight of a US Navy blimp to the Arctic. It was part of a dual mission utilizing the latest technology of the era and some of the oldest aviation technology.

On the weekend of 4/5 August, a number of amateur radio stations and groups will be operating special event stations in honor of the US Coast Guard’s 228th Anniversary. On 4 August 1790, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton to form the United States Revenue Cutter Service, charged with enforcing customs laws. Since there was no United States Navy at the time (it wasn’t re-established until 1798), the Cutter Service also took on additional duties (some of which they still carry out today) as coastal defense, rescue, government transport, and mail transport. In 1915, the Cutter Revenue Service was merged with the United States Lifesaving Service to create the United States Coast Guard. In 1939, the Coast Guard took on additional duties when United States Lighthouse Service was brought under its control. In 1942, the Coast Guard picked up more responsibilities when the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was put under their control. As a result of these mergers and transfers, the Coast Guard became a multi-role agency with search and rescue, regulatory, and law enforcement duties. Because it can be transferred to military control during wartime, the Coast Guard is also considered one of the nation’s armed forces. During both World War I and World War II, it was transferred to the control of Navy Department and transferred back to the Treasury Department after the wars. After the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the Coast Guard was transferred from the Treasury Department to the Department of Homeland Security. The Coast Guard has a significant presence in coastal Georgia, with stations in Savannah and Brunswick, at the port facilities in Savannah and Brunswick, and with Coast Guard Air Station Savannah at Hunter AAF in Savannah.

Citizens Conservation Corps on the Air (CCC on the Air) is 11/12 August (it takes place each year on the second full weekend of August). Amateur radio operators and groups across the country will be setting up and operating from the sites CCC camps and public works projects built by the CCC to honor the work of the Corps and the men it employed. The CCC was was one of President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal work relief programs. Between the years of 1933 and 1942, the CCC employed men between the ages of 17 and 28 as unskilled manual laborers to conserve and improve local, state, and federal government owned lands. It served two purposes; it put many unemployed men back to work and improved government lands for the public. One of the most popular of the New Deal programs to relieve unemployment caused by the Great Depression, it also had a lasting impact on the country. Many of the state and federal parks and historic sites we have today are here because of the work the CCC did in reforestation, building programs, and infrastructure improvements. In coastal Georgia, CCC projects included (among many others) Fort Stewart, Fort Pulaski, McKinnon St. Simons Island Airport, the St. Simons Island Coast Guard Station, and the Okefenokee NWR. Look for participating stations on or around 3.550 CW and 3.950 LSB, 7.050 CW and 7.250 LSB, 14.050 CW and 14.250 USB, 21.050 CW and 21.250 USB, and 28.050 CW and 28.350 USB.

On 18 August 2018, the Shea Naval Aviation Museum Amateur Radio Club, W1NAS in South Weymouth, MA will be commemorating the 60th anniversary of the flight of the US Navy blimp Snow Goose from Naval Air Station South Weymouth to Resolute Bay on the Arctic Circle. Prior to finding the listing for this special event station, I didn’t know anything about this flight; while researching it online, I didn’t find much and what I did find seems to conflict with some of the information in the listing on the ARRL’s website (see next paragraph). In late July and August 1958, the ZPG-2 Airship Snow Goose and its crew made the flight for the purpose of evaluating lighter-than-air craft for supporting Arctic science and military missions. The flight took Snow Goose and crew from South Weymouth to Akron, OH to Fort Churchill in Manitoba, Canada to Resolute Bay where they then flew to Ice Island T-3. It was the first airship to fly into the Arctic Circle since it was done by the Graf Zeppelin in July 1931. The flight was 4,700 miles long and the airship never went above 2,100 ft. above sea level. Snow Goose‘s mission was successful, but ultimately it was for naught because the Navy ended that era of airship operations in 1961. W1NAS will be operating on or near 14.250 USB and 7.250 LSB. QSL via Steve Cohn, W1OD, 10 Hemlock Terrace, Randolph, MA 02368.

Both the ARRL listing and one of the sources I found indicate that the Snow Goose‘s mission was concurrent with the USS Nautilus‘s Arctic mission in August 1958. The conflict comes in where the ARRL listing states that the Snow Goose and USS Nautilus maintained communications with each other. Multiple book reviews of Arctic Mission: 90 North by Airship and Submarine by William Althoff, however, state that the two missions were not aware of each other because the Nautilus’ mission was secret whereas the Snow Goose‘s was public (just because the public was told the two missions weren’t’ aware of each, however, doesn’t mean they weren’t – it wouldn’t surprise me if they did maintain communications). The reviews of Arctic Mission also indicate that both missions were a response to the Soviet Union’s Sputnik launch. If you’re interested, the Lighter Than Air Society has a wonderful account of the flight by one of the crew members.  I’m really interested in trying to find out more about this flight, including getting a copy of Althoff’s book if I can find an inexpensive one!

On 25/26 August, KD7ZDO, Clackamas County Amateur Radio Emergency Services in Oregon City, OR will be commemorating the End of the Oregon Trail’s 175th Anniversary.

In addition to these special events, the weekend of 18/19 August is International Lighthouse and Lightship Weekend (ILLW), which along with Museum Ships on the Air Weekend, is one of my favorite amateur radio events of the year. It isn’t unusual for lighthouses and lightships to be landmarks, historic sites, or museums, so ILLW is also a History related event. There is a huge list of participants in this event, so you’re likely to be able to add more than one lighthouse or lightship to you log over the weekend.

History Related Amateur Radio Special Event Stations for July 2018

The month of July sees a lot of Independence Day special event stations as well as the 13 Colonies Special Event (to be honest, it’s almost become more of a contest than a special event), but there are three History related amateur radio special event stations this July that stand out. The first commemorates the Battle of Gettysburg, the largest and probably most well-known battle of the American Civil war. It’s important that we remember the Civil War as an example of what happens when we are unable to govern ourselves and take up arms against each other as a result. The second commemorates the Whiskey Rebellion, one of the first tests of our new government following the American Revolution. Perhaps there was something to learn from the Whiskey Rebellion that both of our political parties overlooked in the years prior to the 2016 Presidential election. The third special event station commemorates the Maryland Slave Rebellion in 1845. The slave rebellion can remind us that even though our country was founded on the concept that “…all men are created equal…” some have always been more equal than others and that not all of us have been free. Independence Day is a time to celebrate our independence and our freedoms but we should also use it, particularly this year, to reflect on where we’ve been and where we’re going, what our Country has been, and what we want it to be.

Bob Hess, WO4L, is operating special event station W1G through 10 July 2018 in remembrance of the Battle of Gettysburg. The Battle of Gettysburg took place from 1 July 1863 to 3 July 1863 around the town of Gettysburg, PA and was not only the largest battle of the Civil War but the largest battle to have occurred in North America. On the first day of the battle, Union cavalry under General John Buford and infantry under General John Reynolds held the line against Confederate forces under General A.P. Hill, allowing Union forces to hold advantageous positions over the Confederates. Day two of the battle was long and bloody; throughout the day more units of the Union Army of the Potomac and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia arrived on the field and were fed into the battle. On Day 3, the Confederates suffered from General Robert E. Lee’s overconfidence and aggressiveness. Over half of the troops he sent against strong Union lines on Cemetery Ridge didn’t return; it was a waste of perfectly good infantry. Both sides took heavy casualties, over 23,000 for the Union and over 28,000 for the Confederates; but the Confederates lost more percentage wise and most importantly lost too many experienced leaders. Along with the surrender of Vicksburg on 4 July 1863, Gettysburg proved to be a turning point in the Civil War. W1G will be active on or around 18.158, 14.288, 7.227, and 3.830. QSL via Robert J Hess, WO4L, 74 Curtis Dr, East Berlin, PA 17316.

From 3 July to 15 July 2018, Washington Amateur Communications in Washington, PA will be operating special event station W3R commemorating the Whiskey Rebellion. The Whiskey Rebellion lasted from 1791 to 1794 in response to a tax on whiskey instituted by the US Government. Suggested by Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, President George Washington was assured by local officials in Pennsylvania and Virginia that the tax wouldn’t meet much opposition so Washington, in turn, assured Congress that it wouldn’t be a problem. Unfortunately, it seems that those local officials didn’t know or weren’t concerned with the feelings of the western population of their states, because when the tax went into effect it was heavily opposed in the west. Tax officials were met with harassment, resistance, and violence. Hamilton called for troops to be sent in to enforce the tax, but Washington decided to try peace envoys first. The peace initiative failed, so Washington sent in troops under his leadership. As he led 13,000 militia into western Pennsylvania to put down the rebellion, the rebels melted away and only around twenty arrests were made. Most of those arrested were acquitted and those found guilty were pardoned by Washington. Although the Whiskey Tax eventually proved impossible to enforce and was repealed by Congress in 1802, the response to the Whiskey Rebellion was a critical test to the new United States Government. Washinton’s handling of the rebellion proved that the Federal Government could and would put down violent resistance to federal laws. One wonders if the government’s overlooking of the feelings and views of the western citizens before the Whiskey Rebellion was repeated in the overlooking in recent years of the working class that helped bring about the election of President Trump? W3R will be operating on or around 50.300, 18.160, 14.270, and 7.275. QSL for a certificate via William Steffey, Radio Hill, Bells Lake Rd, Prosperity, PA 15329.

On 7 July 2018, the Expatriate Marylanders Radio Club will be operating special event station N3APS to commemorate the Maryland Slave Rebellion of 7-8 July 1845. On 7 July 1845, a group of slaves from Charles County Maryland began moving by road in an attempt to reach freedom in Pennsylvania, approximately 110 miles away. As other slaves along the way joined in, the group became impossible not to notice and were eventually intercepted by a group known as the Montgomery Volunteers. The leaders of the slave group, armed only with a pistol, swords, clubs, and farm implements, decided to give battle. Outgunned, it wasn’t much of a battle, with most of the slaves being captured, some killed, and a few escaping. The Slave Rebellion struck fear into the citizens of the surrounding area, resulting in further restrictions on slaves, “Committees of Vigilance,” and more volunteers for organizations like the Montgomery Volunteers. N3APS will be operating on or near 50.150, 28.325, 14.325, and 7.290. QSL via Expatriate Marylanders Radio Club, P.O. Box 617, Orinda, CA 94563.